(5) Symmetric algorithm: cipher algorithm using the same key to cipher and decipher
(6) Active attack: action modifying or altering the resources targeted by the attack (violation
of the integrity and confidentiality of data);
(7) Passive attack: action that does not alter its target (eavesdropping, invasion of privacy);
(8) Integrity violation: action carried out intentionally to substantially disrupt or disable an
information system, electronic communication network or terminal equipment by inputting,
transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering suppressing or making data
(9) Security audit: systematic examination of components and security actors, policies,
actions, procedures and resources used by an organization to protect its environment, conduct
compliance tests controls to assess the adequacy of (organizational, technical, human and
financial) resources allocated for risks, optimization, efficiency and performance;
(10) Authentication: safety criteria defined using a specific process to verify the identity of a
person or entity and ensure that the identification given corresponds to the identity of the
person initially registered;
(11) Certification Authority: trusted authority responsible for the creation and assignment of
public and private keys and electronic certificates;
(12) Root Certification Authority: structure put in place in charge of the mission of
accreditation of certification authorities, validating certification policy of certification
authorities accredited, validating and signing certification authorities accredited certificates,
(13) Digital certificate: electronic record secured by the electronic signature of the person
who issued it after ensuring that it certifies the authenticity of its contents;
(14) Qualified electronic certificate: digital certificate issued by a licensed Certification
(15) Electronic certification: issuance of electronic certificates;
(16) Cipher: the transformation of information using a secret key to make it illegible to
anyone except those possessing special knowledge of the key;
(17) Key: in a cipher system, it corresponds to a mathematical value, a word, or a phrase
which enables the ciphering or deciphering of a message with the help of the encryption
(18) Private key: key used in asymmetric cipher mechanism (or public key cipher) which
belongs to an entity and kept secret;
(19) Public key: used to cipher a message in an asymmetric system distributed freely;

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